按用途分陈述句肯定句We love our motherland.否定句They don’t go to work on Sundays.疑问句一般疑问句①Are you a worker? ②Haven’t you seen the film?特殊疑问句①Who is the man? ②When do you watch TV? 选择疑问句Do you want tea or coffee? 反意疑问句①They are going to the airport, aren’t they?
②You haven’t finished your homework, have you?祈使句肯定句Make sure to get there at eight.否定句Don’t worry. I’ll help you out.感叹句what+名词What great changes we have had these years!how+形容词或副词How hard they are working!how+句子How time flies! 时间过得真快!How+adj.+a(an)+n.=What a(an)+adj.+n
How nice a boy (he is)!=What a nice boy (he is)!按结构分简单句主+谓They disappeared.主+谓+宾He likes swimming.主+谓+间宾+直接宾语They sent us a telegram.主+谓+宾+宾补They named the boy Jack.主+系+表①She is a university student. ②He has become a pilot.并列句常用的并列连词
表并列关系and, not only…but also, neither…nor, both…and, not…but
表转折关系but, while(而，尽管), nevertheless(然而，不过)等
表选择关系or, otherwise, or else, either…or等
表因果关系for, so, thus, therefore等
He was very tired but he still worked on(并列句)= Although he was very tired, he still worked on.(复合句)复合句含有名词从句、定语从句或状语从句的句子基本用法
whether连接代词：what, who, which, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever从句要用陈述句语序
连接副词：where, when, why, how, wherever, whenever从句要用陈述句语序
①—I lost my cell phone yesterday. Can you tell me _______ buy one like yours?
—Well, there is a department store just around the corner.
A. where can I B. what can I C. where I can D. when I can
②_______ get such a book?
A. Where do you think can I B. Do you think where can I
C. Do you think when I can D. Where do you think I can
_______ many foreigners like Beijing Hutong is _______ they are offered an atmosphere of Chinese culture
A. Why, because B. That, that C. Because, that D. That, because
①The limits of a person’s intelligence, generally speaking, are fixed at birth, but _______ he reaches these limits will depend on his environment.
A. where B. whether C. that D. why
②Tom told us all that _______ he said so at the meeting was really true.
A. that B. all C. what D. which
①Tom told us all that _______ he said at the meeting was really true.
A. that B. all C. what D. which
②_______ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships.
A. No matter what B. No matter which C. Whatever D. Whichever
①_______ we understand things has a lot to do with what we feel.
A. Where B. How C. Why D. When
②_______ Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but some won’t accept it.
A. That B. Why C. Where D. How
③_______ the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather.
A. Why B. When C. That D. What
①At first he hated the new job but decided to give himself a few months to see _______ it got any better.
A. when B. how C. why D. if
②She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do _______ it takes to save her life.
A. whichever B. however C. whatever D. whoever
③Many young people in the West are expected to leave _______ could be life’ s most important decision —marriage—almost entirely up to luck.
A. as B. that C. which D. what
④Could I speak to _______ is in charge of International Sales please?
A. who B. what C. whoever D. whatever
⑤As a new diplomat, he often thinks of _______ he can react more appropriately on such occasions.
A. what B. which C. that D. how
⑥The how-to-book can be of help to _______ wants to do the job.
A. who B. whomever C. no matter who D. whoever
⑦In fact, I wonder _______ my efforts were all in vain.
A. that B. which C. why D. where
①The little girl who got lost decided to remain _______ she was and wait tor her mother.
A. where B. what C. how D. who
②Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was _______ it was rather closely modeled on his own life.
A. what B. that C. why D. whether
③You are saying that the plan will be carried out successfully, and it is _______ I disagree.
A. what B. that C. where D. how
④—I rang you at about nine, but there was no reply.
—Oh, that was probably _______I was seeing the doctor.
A. why B. when C. what D. that
⑤_______ they are most interested in is _______ they can produce more and better cars .
A .That, how B. What, how C. What, what D. That, that
①The news________ Ning Zetao won the gold medal in the swimming competition excited Chinese People.
A. which B. that C. what D. if
②The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief _______ you are better than anyone else on the sports field.
A. how B. that C. which D. whether
③I have no idea _______ the cell phone isn’t working, so could you fix it for me?
A. what B. why C. if D. which
①It is immediately clear _______ the financial crisis will soon be over.
A. since B. what C. when D. whether
②It is obvious to the students _______ they should get well prepared for their future.
A. as B. which C. whether D. that
③In this firm, it is necessary _______ has recently come here have this kind of test.
A. whoever B. that whoever C. that who D. who
比如：It is known to all that the earth goes around the sun.
=As is known to all, the earth goes around the sun.
=What is known to all is that the earth goes around the sun.
①_______ is known to all that the Amber Room belongs to the Russians.
A. As B. which C. It D. What
②_______ is known to us all is that the old worker, whose life was hard in the past, still works hard in his seventies.
A. As B. That C. It D. What;
③It remains to be seen _______ the newly formed committee’s policy can be put into practice.
A .that B. which C. what D. whether
④It remains unknown _______ the peace talk between the two countries is going to lead.
A. where B. when C. how D. why
①It’s common knowledge _______ the United States is one of the biggest developed countries in the world.
A. what B. whether C. that D. why
②It still remains a question _____ life exists on any other planet in the solar system.
A. why B. whether . how D. where
It is still under discussion _______ the old bus station should be replaced with a modern hotel or not.
A. whether B. when C. which D. where
①It suddenly occurred to him _______ he had left his keys in the office.
A. whether B. where C. which D. that
②It doesn’t matter _______ you turn right or left at the crossing—both roads lead to the park.
A. whether B. how C. if D. when
注意：1.由what, whatever, whoever等引导的主语从句，必须置于谓语动词之前，不能用it作形式主语。
Whatever was said here must be kept secret.在这儿说的话得保密。
Whoever breaks the law will be punished.谁犯法谁就将受到惩罚。
2.由which, when, where, whether等引导的主语从句，可置于谓语动词前，也可用it作形式主语。但如果整个句子是疑问句的形式，就只能用it作形式主语。
Whether he’ll come or not makes no difference.
＝It doesn’t make any difference whether he’ll come or not.他来还是不来都无所谓。
Hasn’t it been decided yet when and where we’ll hold the sports meet?
对比：When and where we’ll hold the sports meet hasn’t been decided.
▲主语＋rely on/depend on＋it形式宾语＋that从句
①We all thought _______ a question _______ we could raise enough money for the project.
A. that, that B. it, whether C. it, that D. that, whether
②Miss Woody made _______ clear that she would never have cooperation with that company.
A. that B. what C. which D. it
③Do you _______ they play the same song again and again over the radio?
A. hate that B. hate it for C. hate it when D. hate
④I dislike _______ when you speak loudly in public.
A. that B. what C. this D. it
⑤—It’s a lovely day, isn’t it?
—Yes. I love _______ when the weather is like this. Why don’t we sit outside and have our lunch?
A. this B. that C. it D. one
⑥I don’t like _______ my younger brother follows me around.
A. it when B. it that C. him when D. him that
⑦I will appreciate it _______ you can change your plan a little bit to make it more workable.
A. so B. if C. since D. although
⑧Parents should see to it _______ their children form the habit of brushing their teeth every day.
A. this B. that C. whether D. if
⑨You may depend on _______ that they will be there on time.
A. this B. that C. it D. /
⑩You may _______ he will come here to give us a hand.
A. rely on B. rely on it C. rely on that D. rely on it that
三、that, whether, if引导名词从句的注意点
He said(that) the text was important and that we should recite it.(第二个that不能省略)
I realized at once that I had done wrong immediately she told me all about this.
He told us that, if we could all come to help out, the whole situation would be looking up.
When Marx got to England, he found, however, that his English was so limited that he couldn’t go on with his common affairs.
We all considered it important that children should take plenty of milk as they grow.
①将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等动词后面跟宾语从句时否定转移
我想我并不认识你。I don’t think I know you.
我相信他不会回来的。I don’t believe he will come.
看来他们不知道往哪去。It doesn’t seem that they know where to go.
看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。It doesn’t appear that we’ll have a sunny day tomorrow.
3.动词doubt用在疑问句或否定句中，其后宾语从句常用 that 作连接词；用在肯定句中，连接词用 whether或if皆可，而不用that。
Do you doubt that he will win?他将会赢，你怀疑吗？
I don’t doubt that your suggestion is right.我不怀疑你的建议是对的。
①后面直接跟or not 时
I don’t know whether or not he is going to Japan.我不知道他是否要到日本去。
I worry about whether I hurt her feeling .我担心是否伤了她的感情。
Please let me know whether you want to go.请告诉我你是不是想走。
His first question was whether she had arrived yet.他问的第一个问题就是她来了没有。
Answer my question whether you are coming.回答我你是否来的问题。
Whether she comes or not doesn’t concern me .她是否来与我无关。
①I knew nothing about the accident _______ I read in the newspaper.
A. except that B. except what C. besides what D. besides that
②The boys usually play football on Friday afternoon, _______ it rains.
A. except B. except for C. except when D. except that
③The speech was wonderful _______ it lasted too long.
A. as if B. for C. except that D. except when
1.表语从句的表现形式除了用从属连词，连接代词和连接副词引导以外，还可以由as, as if, as though
Things were not as they seemed.事情不像看上去的那样。
It looks as though it is going to rain.好象要下雨了。
The reason why…is that …
The reason why he was dismissed is that he didn’t work hard.他为什么被开除是因为他工作不努力。
I was late for the appointment. That’s because I met with an old friend on the way.
I met with an old friend on the way. That’s why I was late for the appointment.
From space, the earth looks blue. This is _______ about seventy-one percent of its surface is covered by water.
A. why B. how C. because D. whether
①The notice came around two in the afternoon _______ the meeting would be postponed.
A. when B. that C. whether D. how
②The fact has worried many scientists _______ the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years.
A. what B. which C. that D. though
③News came from the school office _______ Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University.
A. which B. what C. that D. where
①“The Mozart effect” is a study described in 1993 in Nature _______ aroused public interest about the idea _______ listening to a classical music somehow improves the brain.
A. that; which B. what; why C. who; that D. which; that
②Word has come _______ the Chinese football team has failed again, _______ makes many football fans
A. that, that B. what, what C. which, that D. that, which
▲what相当于the thing that/anything/something that…
▲what相当于the place/the person that…
▲what相当于the time that…
▲what相当于the speed that…
▲what相当于the amount/number that…
▲A is to B what C is to D和What C is to D, A is to B的句型用来比较说明两种事物相同或相似的关系，起比喻作用，相当于连接词as，意为“正如”、“好比”、“就象……一样”
①After leaving office in 1999, Nelson Mandela didn’t stop doing _______ he thought was right.
A. that B. which C. what D. where
②The soldiers soon reached _______ was once an old temple which the villagers used as a school.
A. which B. where C. what D. that
③I met one of my students the other day. After several years, she changed a lot and looked different from _______ she used to be.
A. that B. whom C. what D. who
④After _______ seemed a hopeless wait, four coal miners trapped in the mine for 125 hours were finally rescued in Heilongjiang Province.
A. when B. that C. it D. what
⑤The other day my brother drove his car down the street at _______ I thought was a dangerous speed.
A. as B. which C. where D. what
⑥Our factory has been developing rapidly these days. This year’s production is five times _______ it was ten years ago.
A. what B. that C. which D. as
⑦As we all know, reading is to the mind _______ food is to the body.
A. that B. what C. as D. where
疑问词＋ever可引导名词性从句相当于anyone/anybody who, anything that等，既要引导从句，又要在从句中要充当一定的成分。疑问词＋ever还可引导让步状语从句，相当于no matter＋疑问词。
①I won’t have anyone _______ in here. _______ breaks the regulation will get punished.
A. to smoke, Whoever B. smoke, No matter who
C. smoked, No matter who D. smoking, Whoever
②_______ David says sounds right to Helen. That’s why she has made up her mind to leave him _______ happens.
A. Whatever, whatever B. No matter what, whatever
C. No matter what, no matter what D. Whatever, however